New PMD and L-Cat vehicles: market development and road safety risks

Published: Jun 2021

ISBN: 978-92-76-30148-6

Author: Guy I, Appleby J, Ball P, But B, Chowdhury S, Jenkins D,

Pages: , Obazele I, Radcliffe J, Sharp R, Wardle A



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TRL was invited by the European Commission to undertake a study into the market development and safety of personal mobility devices (PMDs) and L-category vehicles. The
objectives of this study were:
  1. to provide an inventory of the various types of personal mobility devices available on the market,
  2. to provide a detailed analysis of the market and the influence of the existing legislations at EU and national level,
  3. to provide a collection and evaluation of available data and information on accidents involving personal mobility devices,
  4. to assess the current use and the safety aspects related to the road circulation of personal mobility devices not covered by EU type-approval,
  5. and to provide recommendations with regard to minimum safety technical requirements they would have to fulfil and the traffic rules, i.e. use and behaviour rules, that they could be subject to.
The following vehicle types were deemed to be within the scope of this investigation:
  • Stand-up and seated e-scooters
  • Electrically assisted pedal cycles including electrically power assisted cycles
  • (EPACs), those currently within the scope of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 and those intended for carrying commercial cargo
  • Self-balancing vehicles including self-balancing personal transporters and hoverboards
  • Electric unicycles
  • Electric skateboards and ‘One-wheel’ boards
Excluded from the scope of this investigation were: 
  • ‘Toys’ intended for use only by children 
  • Devices intended for use only by those with a physical disability 
  • Devices with no capability to carry people (e.g. cargo robots) 
  • Pedestrian controlled vehicles, i.e. vehicles in which the operator walks with the vehicle rather than riding on or in it 
  • Non-land vehicles (e.g. jet-skis, passenger carrying aerial vehicles etc.) 
  • Vehicles specifically designed for use off-road (e.g. dirt-bikes) 
  • Vehicles that are wholly powered by the rider/driver (e.g. non-assisted bicycles) 


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